First aid: Cuts, Sprains, Burns, Fractures and Fires

Accidents happen suddenly at any time or any place without warning. They cause harm to life and property. They usually happen when we are careless. You must be careful at home, at school, in the playground, and on the road. Many accidents can be avoided, if we are careful and follow the safety rules.

  • Electric shocks
  • While handling sharp objects
  • Falling down from a tree
  • While playing on the road
  • On the road
  • While burning firecrackers
  • If a wrong medicine is taken
  • When animal
  • bite

First-Aid

A person who had met with an accident needs immediate attention. The immediate help given to an injured person to minimize his pain and at times to save his life is called first-aid. First-aid prevents the condition of the victim from getting worse. Such as in case of bleeding, cuts and minor burns it relieves pain till the doctor arrives. It even saves a lite, such as in case of poisoning. A first-aid kit should contain cotton wool, bandages, antiseptic cream and some other medicines.

(1.) First-aid for cuts and wounds

(i) Get your hands washed with soap and water to remove germs. Germ if present, usually enter the body through minor cut and wounds.

(ii) If the cut is minor clean it with soap and plenty of water. Dry it and apply an antiseptic cream or put a band-aid over the wound.

(iii) To stop the bleeding from severe cuts first wash it with soap and water. Take some cotton, wool or make a thick pad of sterile gauze and press it over the wound. Then tie it tightly with a bandage.

(iv) Consult a doctor for the treatment.

(2.) Nose-bleeding

(i) Make the victim sit down on a chair, with the head held back.

(ii) Ask the victim to put a wet handkerchief over the nose until the bleeding stops.

(iii) Put an ice-cube over the nose. This would ensure that bleeding does not start again.

(iv) Ask the victim to breathe through his mouth for sometime.

(3.) Sprains

A sprain occurs when a joint, such as the ankle, gets twisted and swells up.

(i) Apply ice-cubes on the joint to reduce the swelling.

(ii) Do not move the sprained joint.

(iii) Wound a crepe bandage around the joint to prevent unnecessary movement and give support to the joint.

(4.) Fractures

When a bone in the body breaks, it is called a fracture. It causes a lot of pain and swelling. The firstaid should be given as follows:

(i) Make sure that the fractured part is not moved.

(ii) Take a piece of cardboard or wood, a magazine or a pillow and tie it around the affected part. This will act as a splint. It will prevent the movement of the bone.

(iii) You cannot treat a fracture on your own. So take the victim to a doctor.

(5.) Burns

Burns are caused when you touch a very hot object or boiling water falls on the skin or while burning firecrackers.
In case of a minor burn, the skin turns red and there is a painful tingling sensation on the affected area. Severe burns are treated by a doctor. Minor burns can be treated by giving first-aid to the victim as follows:

(i)Keep the burnt area under cold running water for a few minutes. Then apply ice there.

(ii)Put one teaspoon of baking soda in one glass of water. Dip cotton wool in this solution and apply it on the affected part. It would give relief from the burning sensation.

(6.) Animal bites

The saliva of some animals such as dogs, monkeys, cats and wolves etc contain germs. When these animals bite someone, they transfer the saliva into the skins of the victim. This causes a deadly disease called rabies. Animal bites are needed to be treated immediately.

Wash the wound with antiseptic soap and clean water to remove the saliva Apply antiseptic cream on the wound to prevent infection. Take the victim to a doctor to get anti-rabies injection.

In case of a snake bite, it injects poison into the victim’s body. This poison spreads to all parts of the body through the blood. Do the following in case of a snake bite:

(i) Do not move the victim. Movement will cause the poison to spread faster.

(ii) Tie a piece of cloth or a bandage just above the bite. This would slow down the movement of the infected blood towards the heart.

(iii) Take the victim to a doctor to get him anti-venom injection.

(7.) Fires

Fires can be very destructive. To prevent fires, follow these safety rules:

(i) Wear only cotton clothes in the kitchen or while burning crackers as synthetic clothes catch fire very easily.

(ii) Never play with matchsticks. Use a lighter to light the gas stove. It is safer.

(iii) Do not keep kerosene, diesel, petrol etc. in the kitchen. They catch fire easily. –

(iv) Burn crackers outside the house under the supervision of an adult.

(v) If there is a fire, raise an alarm and call for help immediately. If someone’s clothes catch firem, do as follows:

(vi) Throw water on him.

(vii) Ask him to roll on the ground.

(viii) Cover him with a blanket or some other thick · cloth. This would cut off the air supply and the fires would be extinguished.

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